Candidiasis, pityriasis versicolor and the Dermatophyte infections are traditionally known as superficial infections, in that they do not penetrate beyond the superficial layers of the skin.
Candidiasis is a common infection of the mouth, genitals, flexures and nails. Candidiasis is more common at the extremes of age and during pregnancy or menses. Diabetes and malignancy predispose to it also.
Oral candidiasis or thrush is common in the neonatal period; it is contracted from the mother during vaginal delivery It also occurs in the very sick and immunosuppressed adults. Patients who wear dentures and neglect their oral and dental hygiene may also be affected.
Angular cheilitis is a red, scaley and often raw condition that occurs at the corners of the mouth, this is caused by a downturned mouth in older patients and is sometimes blamed on ill-fitting dentures. Saliva tricks down the folds which is an ideal environment for Candida to flourish. Sometimes there will also be a superimposed Staphyloccocal infection which will require an a antibiotic.
Candida vulvovaginitis, commonly know as thrush, is a red itchy rash with a creamy vaginal discharge. This is very common in women taking antibiotics like augmentin, during pregnancy or during menses.
Candida Balanitis is an infection of the glans penis with Candida albicans. This is commonly acquired from a sexual partner who has active disease.
This is a very common itchy red rash in women and men between the warm moist skin folds which again provides an ideal environment for the Candida to flourish. In women it is usually under the breasts, groin, axilla, or natal cleft.
This is sometimes called tinea versicolor and is a common fungal infection that causes small patches of skin to become scaley and discoloured. It is caused by a Yeast infection called Malassezia. The yeast is found on the skin of 90% of adults, where it normally lives without causing any problems. The common presentation is after a sun holiday; maybe it is the moist warm environment and the occlusive application of sunscreens or oils. It is treated with anti-fungal medication but the patches depigment( lose their colour ) for up to 18 months so patients probably should avoid getting a suntan for this time period. Otherwise, the normal skin will tan and the patches affected by the pityriasis will be white, giving a dappled appearance. This rash can recur. Some patients will use anti-fungal shampoos once a month for about a year to prevent recurrence.
Tinea (ringworm). Tinea Capitis. This is scalp ringworm. It is more common in lower socioeconomic groups. It presents in children with patches of hair loss and scaling. It is very rare in adults.
Tinea corporis. This is very common. It can be caused By Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum or Trichophyton species. T. Rubrum is common in the feet (athlete’s foot), groin (jock itch) and is also responsible for many of the fungal nail infections of the toenails.