Patients should practice safe sun-protection and wear a sunscreen every day, winter and summer on face, neck and back of the hands (any areas that are exposed to the sun/environment) and  this will need to be re-applied during the summer months.

Instead of wearing a daily moisturiser, why not wear a daily sunscreen in the same areas? 

In the summer months, avoidance of mid-day sun between the hours of 11am and 3pm, if possible, is helpful.  Broad-rimmed hats, that protect the tips of the ears and back of the neck, long-sleeves tee-shirts and long trousers are helpful.  Patients have expressed concerns about low vitamin D levels from adequate sun protection. 

Most patients in Ireland and UK have low blood vitamin D levels.  Vitamin D supplementation should be taken during the winter months -speak to your pharmacist. Vitamin D can be obtained from diet, but it would be very difficult to obtain the daily recommended levels from diet alone. 

SPF 30 or above, is generally recommended.  This will need to be re-applied during the day depending on the weather. Topical vitamin C 20% serum is a potent anti-oxidant that helps fight free radicals formed by UV radiation.  Research states that when Vitamin C is combined with a UVA sunscreen, a greater additive protection is noted against the photo-toxic damage. Topical retinoids or retinol 1% should also be used every night.